The stoma appliance consists of a “faceplate” and “ostomy bag.” The system where the faceplate and ostomy bag are integrated into one appliance is “one-piece stoma appliance,” and the system where the faceplate and ostomy bag can be separated is a “two-piece stoma appliance”. The names of the main parts are shown (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Name of stoma appliance
The faceplate is a plate to fix the ostomy bag to the body. A “non-adhesive” type and “adhesive” type are available. Since the non-adhesive type does not adhere to the skin, it is fixed with a belt. Since its adhesiveness and airtightness are not adequate, odor and leakage become problematic, so it is hardly used now. For the adhesive type, only the “adhesive” type and “with skin barrier” are available, and the skin barrier is used in many faceplates.
As for the shape of the faceplate, a flat type and convex type are available. For the convex type, there is one type in which a convex ring is inserted into the inside of the faceplate flange, and there is also a built-in type.
By structure, there is a type in which a skin barrier is applied to the whole surface, and a type in which a surgical tape is attached to the surrounding of the skin barrier on the faceplate (with a circumferential tape). Since the type with a skin barrier on the whole surface has a constant thickness, the outer edge may become wrinkled or turn outward. Since the edge of the type with a circumferential tape is unlikely to turn outward by external force, you need not be bothered by an uncomfortable feeling.
In the faceplate, there is a “faceplate stoma hole”. For the “ready-made hole (precut)” where a hole of a certain size has been opened from the beginning, it is not necessary to use scissors. The “free-cut” type has no small initial hole or hole, but can be opened freely with scissors, etc. The “moldable hole” can be extended with the fingers within its size range.
The flange is a “circular edge of a multi-piece appliance,” which is a junction located in both the faceplate and the ostomy bag. It has a connection mode, a lock mode and an adhesion mode. The flange differs in flexibility according to thickness, material and shape.
Figure 2. Types of flange
2. Ostomy bag
Among stoma bags, a bag collecting stool is referred to as a “stool collection bag”, and a bag collecting urine is referred to as a “urine collection bag”. The film of the ostomy bag is 3 to 5 layers and has a deodorant effect.
Colostomy bags are classified into the lower-opened type with a vent for stool, and a closed type with no vent. The lower-opened type is classified as an “open-end” type where the bag width is constant from top to bottom, and a “drainable” type where the bag width becomes narrower towards the lower end.
To the colostomy appliance, a “deodorant filter” for removal of gas is attached.
The urinary vent of a urostomy bag is tubular, and the stopcock valve is called a “urinary vent stopcock”. The stopcock may be a cock type, cap type or rotary type. Moreover, the bag has a “non-return valve”.